## Sunday, June 21, 2015

### Arduino 4-20 mA output

Need an Arduino to output a standard 4 to 20 milliamp signal for a control loop? Here's how!

Note: Looking for how to input a 4-20 milliamp signal to an Arduino? This link here is what you're looking for.

At work, we had a surplus Fisher D4 control valve with an i2P transducer that we weren't sure was functional. Of course, we could have had one of our instrument techs test it, but where's the fun in that? After work I whipped up a circuit powered by an Arduino that would do the trick.

According to the transducer's documentation, the equivalent circuit is a 40 ohm resistance with a 4 volt drop, and the current supply should be able to supply at least 30 milliamps and have a maximum voltage of 30V. Doing the math,

V = IR

V = 0.03 A * 40 ohms = 1.2 V

Adding the 4 volt constant drop, we'll need at least 5.2 volts available across the transducer. Since we'll have some additional resistive loss in the circuit, we'll need to use a transistor to switch the Arduino's 5V output to a higher voltage.

Now how do we get the Arduino to apply a specific voltage across the transducer to give it the desired current? Some of the Arduino digital pins can do pulse width modulation that applies 5V to the circuit for a time and then zero volts for a time, but we want a smooth voltage output to give a smooth current, not bang-bang control. We can use an RC circuit to transform the on-off signal into a smooth output. This site here has a nice writeup of how to use an RC circuit with an Arduino to output a given voltage. It links to a RC-PWM simulator here that you can use to estimate the values of a resistor and capacitor needed for a reasonably smooth output. I had a 100 microfarad capacitor on hand and paired with a 100 ohm resistor, it looked good enough.

So now we need some way of making sure we know how much current we're putting through the circuit. If we can measure the current in the circuit, we can adjust the PWM output to the circuit until we get the desired current. We can accomplish this by putting a resistor of a known resistance in the circuit and measure the voltage drop across it. The Arduino can read a 0-5V voltage with its analog input pins. The bigger the resistor we use, the larger the voltage drop we can read and the better the resolution we'll get on measuring the current. At the maximum of 20 mA we want it to read, the biggest resistor we can use is:

R = V/I

R = 5 V/ 0.02 A = 250 ohms

220 ohm was the closest I had on hand. You'll want to measure the actual resistance to use in the code - the resistor I had was actually 217 ohms, so that's what I used in the code. This resistor does need to be the last element in the circuit above ground so that the voltage you measure at the high end is the true voltage drop across the resistor. Measuring the current like this does mean that we'll need to switch the circuit with a transistor on the high side. A p-mosfet like this guy will be appropriate.

Since the source voltage will be quite a bit higher than 5V, we'll need an n-mosfet to apply the full source voltage to the gate when switching. It in turn can be switched by one of the Arduino's PWM pins. Here's my full circuit, including a dummy load for troubleshooting and some resistors to keep the mosfets happy (I'll be honest, I can't remember why I included the 100K one).

With this full circuit and the transistor fully open, the resistance across the circuit is 100 + 40 (transducer itself) + 220 = 360 ohms. At a full 20 mA, the voltage drop across the resistive elements here will be:

V = 0.02 * 360 = 7.2 volts

Add in the constant 4 volt drop across the transducer, and we'll need a power supply that outputs at least 11.2 volts in order to power the circuit through its full 4 to 20 mA range. A 12V power supply should work swimmingly.

I controlled the current-supply circuit with pin 3, and an indicator LED  with pin 11. I read the reference resistor's voltage with analog pin 1. I included a potentiometer to adjust the current set point.

In order to adjust the PWM output to generate the desired current, I used the Arduino PID library. It's probably overkill, but it does the trick. It also easily compensates for changes in the transducer load resistance or power supply input. After getting it to work on a breadboard, I soldered it all up:

We tested it out on a valve, and sure enough it worked! Move the potentiometer and the stem moved up and down as the transducer received the signal and applied the proper pressure to the valve's topworks.

There's probably far more elegant ways to accomplish the same thing, but this did do the trick for me.

Here's the code:
`````` //This sketch works to output a 4 to 20 milliamp signal by measuring the resistance across a reference resistor and adjusting the PWM output to a transistor with a PID controller to match a setpoint from a potentiometer.
#include <PID_v1.h> //PID library
#define TRANSISTOR 3 //n-Mosfet digital pin
#define LED 11 //LED digital pin

float val = 0;    // variable to store the value coming from the potentiometer

char buffer;

int Rref = 217; //resistance of reference resistor

float Vref = 0; //measured voltage across reference resistor

float MeasCurrent = 0;

int counter = 0;
double Setpoint, Input, Output;

//Specify the links and initial tuning parameters for the PID loop. I didn't use a very scientific method to choose them, I just varied them until it worked. These could probably be optimized
double Kp=1, Ki=30, Kd=.02;
PID myPID(&Input, &Output, &Setpoint, Kp, Ki, Kd, DIRECT); //initialize the PID

void setup(){
pinMode(TRANSISTOR, OUTPUT);
pinMode(LED, OUTPUT);
Serial.begin(9600);

//Arbitrarily start the PID at 12 mA
Setpoint = 12;

//turn the PID on
myPID.SetMode(AUTOMATIC);

Serial.println("Time (ms), Setpoint (mA),PID output,Measured voltage across reference resistor (V), Measured current (mA)");
}

void loop(){

//take ten measurements of the reference resistor and potentiometer and average them
counter = 0;
val = 0;
Vref = 0;
while(counter < 10){
counter = counter + 1;
val = val + analogRead(POTPIN);  // read the value from the potentiometer
Vref = Vref + analogRead(REFRES); // read the value from the reference resistor
delay(1);
}
val = val/10;
Vref = Vref/10;

//Convert the measured potentiometer setting to a 4 to 20 mA set point for the PID loop
Setpoint = mapfloat(val, 0.0, 1023.0, 4.0, 20.0);

//Calculate the current in milliamps from Ohm's law. The 0-1024 analog reading corresponds to 0 to 5V on the pin. This assumes your reference voltage is 5V, if you change that, you'll need to change the formula.
MeasCurrent = Vref/1024.0/Rref*1000.0*5.0;

//Feed the PID loop with the measured current.
Input = MeasCurrent;
//print out everything for the debugger. Time, PID setpoint, PID output, measured voltage, and measured current. Separate with commas so you can put it into a spreadsheet and sort it out as comma separated values
Serial.print(millis());
Serial.print(",");
Serial.print(Setpoint);
Serial.print(",");
Serial.print(Output);
Serial.print(",");
Serial.print(Vref*5/1024.0);
Serial.print(",");
Serial.println(MeasCurrent);

//Run the PID
myPID.Compute();

//Take the PID output and apply it to the transistor pin
analogWrite(TRANSISTOR, Output);

// Adjust the brightness of the LED to the setpoint with PWM
analogWrite(LED, mapfloat(Setpoint, 4.0, 20.0, 0, 255));

//wait 20 milliseconds before looping again
delay(20);

}

//The normal map function uses longs, we need floats - from http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=3922.0
float mapfloat(float x, float in_min, float in_max, float out_min, float out_max)
{
return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min;
}
``````

1. Thanks for posting this.

I noticed you have a model number for the P-channel MOSFET but not the N-channel. What do you recommend?

1. I used a FQP27P06, this one here - https://www.sparkfun.com/products/10349

It's wildly overkill since it's only controlling a few milliamps of current, but it does the trick for ninety five cents.

2. Whoops, you asked about the N-channel. That's an IRF510. Again, overkill, but it works fine.